- “Priority” debts are those that the law treats as special for various reasons. Past-due child support and unpaid recent income taxes are “priority” debts. The law treats them as special, by treating them much better than other unsecured debts. You can find a list of all the priority debts at Section 507 of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.
- “General unsecured” debts are simply the rest of the unsecured debts, those that aren’t “priority.” “General unsecured” debts include most unsecured ones. Examples are almost all medical and credit card debts, retail accounts, personal loans, many payday and internet loans, unpaid utilities and other similar bills, claims against you arising out accidents or other bodily injuries, damages arising from contracts and business disputes, overdrawn checking accounts, bounced checks, the remaining debt after a vehicle repossession or real estate foreclosure, and countless other kinds. If the debt is not secured, and isn’t “priority,” then its “general unsecured.”
We’ll get into “priority” debts later. Today’s post is about how Chapter 7 “straight bankruptcy” deals with “general unsecured” debts.
The Discharge of Debts
The main goals of a Chapter 7 case are 1) to stop creditors’ collection actions against you and then 2) to discharge as many of your debts as possible.
First, creditor collections are virtually all stopped by the “automatic stay.” This includes general unsecured debts. We discussed the automatic stay in our blog post of November 22, 2017. We compared how it works in Chapter 7 and 13. Also, see Section 362 of the Bankruptcy Code about it.
Second, most Chapter 7 cases discharge all “general unsecured debts.” See Section 727 of the Bankruptcy Code about the discharge of debts.
The discharge happens quite quickly. About 100 days after your Louisville bankruptcy lawyer files your case, the bankruptcy court enters a discharge order. Here is a very straightforward version of the Order of Discharge, consisting basically of this single short sentence: “A discharge under 11 U.S.C. [the Bankruptcy Code] is granted to [Debtor].” Your assigned bankruptcy judge signs this order.
The Effect of Discharge
This order explains the effect of this discharge, stating:
Creditors cannot collect discharged debts
This order means that no [creditor] may make any attempt to collect a discharged debt from the debtors personally. For example, creditors cannot sue, garnish wages, assert a deficiency, or otherwise try to collect from the debtors personally on discharged debts. Creditors cannot contact the debtors by mail, phone, or otherwise in any attempt to collect the debt personally. Creditors who violate this order may have to pay the debtors’ damages and attorney’s fees.
Most General Unsecured Debts Get Discharged
Chapter 7 does not discharge “priority” debts. For example, it never discharges unpaid child or spousal support. Nor are recent income taxes.
But Chapter 7 does discharge most general unsecured debts. There are some exceptions. We’ll cover those next time.