You’re not likely to be accused of creating a fraudulent debt. But if so, bankruptcy can stop its collection. And resolve the problem.
Most Debts are Discharged (Permanently Written Off) in Bankruptcy
The federal Bankruptcy Code has a list of the kinds of debts that filing bankruptcy does not discharge. This list details the conditions under which discharge does not happen for these kinds of debts. (See Section 523 on “Exceptions to discharge.”)
Essentially, all your debts get discharged unless any of them fit one of the listed exceptions.
The Fraud Exception
One of the most important exceptions to discharge is the one stating that debts, “to the extent obtained, by . . . false pretenses, false representation, or actual fraud,” might not be discharged. (Section 523(a)(2)(A) of the Bankruptcy Code.)
This is an important exception to discharge because it could apply to many different kinds of debts. The other exceptions to discharge apply to very specific categories of debts. For example, these other exceptions include child and spousal support, various taxes, and student loans. But the fraud exception could apply to just about any debt if it was incurred in a fraudulent way.
What Makes for a Fraudulent Debt?
Your creditor would have to demonstrate that its debt should not be discharged because you incurred that debt fraudulently. If the creditor fails to do so there IS a discharge of that debt and you’ll no longer legally owe it.
To avoid discharge of the debt, the creditor would have to present evidence and prove EACH of the following:
- you made a representation
- which you knew at THAT time was false
- you made that representation for the purpose of deceiving the creditor
- the creditor relied on this representation
- the creditor was damage by your representation.
- a person gets a loan by representing that he or she has a certain amount of income
- while knowing that income amount was inaccurate
- with the purpose of fooling the creditor into making the loan
- resulting in the creditor relying on this income information in making the loan
- and losing money when the person didn’t pay back the loan
What Happens When a Creditor Alleges Fraud
Proving all five of these necessary elements often isn’t easy. So creditors tend not to object unless they believe they have a strong evidence of fraud. In the vast majority of consumer bankruptcy cases no creditors raise any fraud-based challenges.
When a creditor does raise such a challenge it does so in a specialized lawsuit in the bankruptcy court. This “adversary proceeding” usually focuses directly on whether the creditor can prove the five elements of fraud.
Such adversary proceedings almost always get settled. That’s because the amount of money at issue doesn’t justify the expense in attorney fees and other costs that can accrue quickly for both sides.
Staying Allegedly Fraudulent Debts
The “automatic stay” imposed against virtually all creditor collection action also applies to allegedly fraudulent debts. If the creditor has alleged fraud prior to your bankruptcy filing, the filing will at least temporarily stop all collection on the debt. The “automatic stay” stops “any act to collect, assess, or recover a claim against the debtor.” (Section 362(a)(6) of the U.S. Bankruptcy Code.)
Then, as mentioned above, filing bankruptcy will either discharge the debt or it won’t. If the creditor doesn’t file an adversary proceeding in time, bankruptcy DOES discharge the debt. If the creditor files an adversary proceeding but then doesn’t prove fraud, you no longer owe the debt.
On the other hand, if the creditor does prove fraud there’s no discharge and the creditor can then pursue the debt. It gets a judgment stating that the debt continues being collectible. Then the creditor can use all the usual collection methods to collect the debt.
However, these kinds of disputes usually result in a settlement, including an agreed payment plan negotiated through your Louisville bankruptcy lawyer. So in the unlikely event that a creditor DOES allege fraud against you, files a timely adversary proceeding, AND convinces the bankruptcy judge that all the elements of fraud were present, you would still very likely have a workable way to pay the debt without worrying about being hit by unexpected collection actions.